A History of Modern Psychology 10th Edition Solution

$50.00

StumbleUponEmail

Description

A History of Modern Psychology 10th Edition Solution

Chapter 1The Study of the History of Psychology

Why study the history of psychology? One reason is that the past is relevant for the present. For example, researchers in 1999 asked psychology students to watch a one-minute video of two teams of basketball players passing the ball to their teammates. Students were asked to count the number of times the ball bounced during a particular team’s passes. Towards the end of the video, a person dressed in a large gorilla costume came out, stopped amidst the players, and pounded his chest. When asked if they saw anything besides the basketball players, only about half of the students could identify the gorilla. The study of The Invisible Gorilla suggests that people may find it difficult, if not impossible, to pay attention to more than one stimulus at a time. Similar results on the usefulness and effectiveness of multitasking were demonstrated in 1861 by a German psychologist. Thus, the history of psychology often informs the nature of psychology in the 21st century. In other words, history is important is because studying the evolution of psychologists’ thought will help students understand contemporary psychology.
In addition, this course is being offered because faculty believes it to be an important contribution to the field. Courses about the history of psychology have been offered since at least 1911, and are currently offered in 93% of 311 psychology departments surveyed in 2010. Other sciences typically do not offer such a course. Furthermore, there are specialized journals, research centers, and even a division of APA dedicated to the history of psychology. Because there is no single form, approach, or definition of psychology on which all psychologists agree, present day psychology has become so diverse that our history is perhaps the one thing that provides order and imposes meaning to the seemingly chaotic field.
Psychology can be considered both one of the oldest fields of study and one of the newest. It can be considered one of the oldest because its subject matter, the mind, can be traced back to the Greek philosophers in the fifth century BC. On the other hand, we can also view psychology as being about 200 years old if we mark our beginnings with the merging of physiology and philosophy. Psychology distinguished itself as a formal discipline in the last quarter of the nineteenth century when it shed philosophical tools of speculation and intuition and adopted the tools used in biology and physical sciences. While the questions addressed by early psychologists were similar to their philosophical predecessors, carefully controlled observation and experimentation set psychology apart as a field with increased precision and objectivity.
History is quite different than psychology, so this course merges two distinct disciplines. The methods used to study history, broadly termed historiography, are quite different than those of science. History cannot be replicated, but is instead constructed from the scraps of information found and interpreted by the historian, and historical data can be incomplete and incorrect for a variety of reasons. Some data have become lost, for example John Watson burned his letters, research notes, and unpublished manuscripts before he died. In other cases, data have been found decades or even centuries after having been lost, such as when some papers written by Hermann Ebbinghaus were found in 1984 or when missing letters written in 1641 by Rene Descartes were later recovered in 2010. Other times, information is purposefully withheld in order to protect the reputation of an individual, such as when Freud’s biographer, Ernest Jones, purposefully downplayed Freud’s cocaine use.
Some data will be made available at a later time, for example, the Library of Congress in Washington D.C. is holding papers and letters from Freud’s estate with instructions not to release them until a certain time.

Sometimes information is distorted, which is often seen in faulty translations, and can cause errors in either the meaning of the term or the emotions attached to them. For example, Freud’s original systems of personality were translated into Id, Ego, and Superego. A better translation of these ideas from their original German might be It, I, and above-I. Likewise, his idea translated as free-association is more accurately translated into something that conveys the idea of an invasion or intrusion of thought. Other historical data is inaccurate because individuals recount a biased perception of their lives to protect themselves or enhance their public image. In his autobiography, B. F. Skinner portrayed his graduate student days as being filled with nothing but work. Twelve years after the account was published, Skinner recanted his statement as being a “pose” rather than a reality. Some distortions can be resolved by consulting other sources. In this example, graduate student colleagues of Skinner remember him for finishing his work quickly in order to spend his afternoons playing ping pong.
Contextual forces such as the Zeitgeist of the time often shape the nature and direction of psychology. Every age has a Zeitgeist, which is the intellectual climate or spirit of the times. During the early years of the twentieth century, increased economic opportunities coupled with changes in America’s demographic composition lead to a fundamental shift in emphasis. The focus of psychology went from the academic laboratory to using psychology to solve issues related to teaching and learning. World War I and II implemented another contextual shift as psychology extended its influence into personnel selection, psychological testing, and engineering psychology… During World War II, European researchers and theorists escaped to America, thereby relocating the forefront of the discipline to the United States.
Finally, prevailing discrimination also shaped the field, with its impact on women, Jews, and African Americans. Women were often denied admission to graduate school or conferment of degrees, and later had a difficult time finding jobs particularly if married. Eleanor Gibson, who later won a number of professional awards for her work in perceptual development and learning, was restricted from certain courses and areas on campus when she attended Yale. Such discrimination extended into 1960, when Sandra Scarr was told by the officer interviewing her for admission that most women don’t finish their degrees, and the ones that do amount to nothing anyway. Despite such obstacles, women did attain doctoral degrees in psychology. One champion for the education of women was James McKeen Cattell, who supported women frequently, urging scientific societies to include women. Largely because of his efforts, the APA was the first scientific society to admit women as members. Mary Whiton Calkins became the first female president of APA in 1905.
Discrimination extended to Jewish psychologists as well. A study of discrimination of Jews at three universities-Harvard, Yale, and Princeton-found widespread practices that excluded Jews from admission. Those Jews who were admitted to colleges were often separated and socially ostracized. Many colleges and universities, including two important to psychology (Johns Hopkins and Clark), had explicit policies to disallow Jewish students. In the face of such discrimination, some Jewish psychologists changed their names, which helped them secure jobs. Isadore Krechevsky became David Krech, David Bakanovsky became David Bakan, and Harry Israel (even though he was a protestant) changed his name to Harry Harlow.
Some chose not to do this, for example Abraham Maslow refused to change his first name to something “less Jewish”.

African Americans also faced an enormous amount of discrimination. When Black students were allowed to attend predominantly White universities, they were often not allowed to live on campus or mix socially with White students. Howard University in Washington D.C., a traditionally Black school, provided an education in Psychology for many Black students. Kenneth Clark graduated from Howard with his bachelor’s degree and was refused admittance to graduate school at Cornell. He received his doctoral degree from Columbia University, married Mamie Phipps Clark, and they both went on to perform their landmark study about the self-concept of Black children that was cited in the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision that ended racial segregation in schools. For those Black students who did receive their doctoral degrees, finding a job was the next obstacle, and many found work at the traditionally Black universities. Because so many of these universities were under funded, it was difficult for these psychologists to do research that received wide attention, therefore their work is less visible. Although the history of psychology is dominated by White male psychologists, it is important to bear in mind that we can only focus on a few individuals. The overwhelming majority of psychologists, no matter what race or sex, receive no attention at all.
There are two ways to conceptualize how history happens; the personalistic theory and the naturalistic theory. The personalistic theory is the view that the contributions of individuals is what fuels progress. With this theory, if these special individuals had not done their work, their fields would not have progressed. The naturalistic theory is the idea that the times draw out ideas from people. For example, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace developed the idea of the theory of evolution independent of (and half way around the world from) each other, indicating that the time was right for that idea to emerge. As further support, sometimes ideas are presented before their time. The Scottish scientist Robert Whytt presented the idea of the conditioned response in 1763 but was largely ignored by his contemporaries. A century later, Ivan Pavlov expanded on Whytt’s ideas when the Zeitgeist was more receptive. The Zeitgeist may be directed by some individuals. Oftentimes journal editors can act as gatekeepers of mainstream ideas and refuse to publish papers that are revolutionary. Psychologist John Garcia tried to publish a paper that challenged prevailing thought on stimulus-response theory. Although the research was solid, he was only able to publish in journals that were less known. This book uses both the personalistic and naturalistic viewpoints, while highlighting the importance of the Zeitgeist in defining the history of psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt, a German physiologist working in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, is often credited as the founder of psychology because he determined its goals, subject matter, research methods, and topics of investigation. Although Wilhelm Wundt first defined and promoted psychology, challenges to his conception began quickly. By 1900, there were several organized positions that rose in opposition to Wundt’s psychology and to each other. Each of these was a “school of thought”, and a series of them emerged, rose, and fell in succession as psychology developed over time.
Thomas Kuhn wrote a book about how sciences develop over time called The Structure of Scientific Revolution. According to Kuhn, when a science has produced an accepted way of thinking and has matured, this way of thinking is called a paradigm. Paradigms are present in other science, for example for about 300 years the paradigm in physics was the Galilean-Newtonian framework. Paradigms can also change, in what Kuhn calls a scientific revolution, such as when Einstein’s model of physics became the paradigm.
Because psychology remains divided, it is considered to be “preparadigmatic”-there is no prevailing school of thought. In fact, many contemporary psychologists criticize the field because of its fragmentation.

To some extent, it has always been fragmented, because competing schools of thought have always been present. Oftentimes, new schools of thought are proposed and championed by younger psychologists. The schools of thought described in this book began with Wundt’s psychology and structuralism, followed by functionalism, behaviorism, and Gestalt psychology, all three of which opposed structuralism. At about the same time, psychoanalysis developed independent from (instead of in opposition to) these other schools. Later, humanistic psychology develops as a reaction to both psychoanalysis and behaviorism. The last formal school discussed in the text is cognitive psychology which opposes behaviorism. Contemporary new foci in psychology include evolutionary psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and positive psychology.

Outline

I. The Invisible Gorilla
A. Study of multitasking and attention (Simon & Chabris, 1999)
B. Conclusions similar to 1861 study
C. Example of the past informing the present
II. Why Study the History of Psychology?
A. History of psychology: common requirement for majors
B. Unique among the sciences in the focus on our history
C. An area of status within psychology
1. journals
2. formal organizations
a. APA Division 26
b. The Archives of the History of American Psychology)
D. Rationale for studying the history of psychology
1. recognizes diversity within psychology
2. provides a framework for solidarity
3. emphasizes the relationships that make the whole cohesive
4. integrates topics and issues
5. is interesting in its own right
III. The Development of Modern Psychology
A. Paradox: Psychology is both
1. a 2,500 year-old discipline
a. traced to 5th century B.C. speculation about human nature and behavior
b. Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle wrestled with issues with issues still covered in introductory psychology classes.
2. a new discipline began 200 years ago
a. formed when it emerged from
(1) theories of philosophy
(2) tools used in other biology and physical sciences
B. Historical roots
1. philosophical in character
2. principal methods were speculation, intuition, and generalization
C. Modern distinct from the old
1. a primary scientific field
2. applies tools and methods from biology and physiology
3. relies on controlled observation and experimentation
4. objectivity and precision are continually sought and refined
D. represents a union of philosophy and physiology that emerged with its own character, status, and popularity
E. a better starting point is the nineteenth century
1. psychology becomes independent
2. early philosophical approaches can be considered psychology’s “prehistory”
IV. The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
A. Historiography: “the principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research”
B. The data of history are different than the data of sciences like psychology
1. there is no laboratory for historians in which situations are controlled and manipulated
2. there is no replication or independent verification of results
C. The data of history
1. materials used to reconstruct lives, events, eras
2. unique: not replicable, conditions not controlled
3. data fragments: the shards
D. Lost or suppressed data
1. lost permanently: Watson burning his papers
2. lost temporarily: found papers by Hooke, Ebbinghaus, Fechner
3. suppressed: Freud’s materials to be opened in the 21st century
4. altered
a. self-interest: Freud’s cases, Skinner’s youth
b. to protect: K￶hler’s papers, Freud’s cocaine use
E. Data distorted in translation
1. Freud’s use of Es (it), Ich (I), and ᅵber-Ich (above-I)
2. Freud’s Einfall, translated as free association, but meant intrusion
F. Self-serving data
1. Skinner’s report as wholly “nose to the grindstone”
2. Freud’s self-depiction as a martyr to his cause
V. Contextual Forces in Psychology
A. The Zeitgeist: “The intellectual and cultural climate or spirit of the times.”
B. Economic opportunity as a contextual force
1. turn of the century: more PhDs than academic positions
2. rapid increase in U.S. immigration leads to swelling public school enrollment
3. American pragmatism: interest in the practical utility of psychology
4. result: shift in theoretical focus of psychology, increased application of psychology to “real-world” problems in education
C. War as a contextual force
1. World War I:
Application of psychology to personnel selection, psychological testing, and engineering psychology demonstrated the usefulness of psychology to the community at large
2. World War II
a. leading European psychologists fled to the U.S.
b. clinical psychologists: assessment and treatment
3. influence on theories: Freud’s Thanatos
D. Prejudice as a contextual force
1. women denied admission to schools, denied jobs
2. Jews barred from many schools, difficulties finding academic positions so some change their names to secure positions
3. African American largely denied graduate study altogether, with rare exceptions
4. 1960-APA made an effort to increase diversity through funding opportunities
5. effects of prejudice: to this day minorities and women as underrepresented on psychology faculties
VI. Conceptions of Scientific History
A. The personalistic theory of scientific history: “The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the ideas of unique individuals”
B. The naturalistic theory of scientific history: “The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the Zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others”
1. Simultaneous discovery: Darwin and Wallace
2. Sometimes the discovery made before its time: Whytt
3. Dominant theories may stifle new thought: journal editors as gatekeepers
C. This text uses both personalistic and naturalistic viewpoints
D. Highlights the importance of the Zeitgeist in the analysis of history
VII. Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
A. Wundt
1. drew together the various philosophical and scientific lines to found psychology
2. psychology was shaped by his vision
B. The term school of thought “refers to a group of psychologists who become associated ideologically, and sometimes geographically, with the leader of a movement”
C. Thomas Kuhn (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
1. paradigm: “an accepted way of thinking within a scientific discipline that provides essential questions and answers”
2. preparadigmatic phase: the “stage in the development of a science when it is still divided into schools of thought”
3. paradigmatic phase: “The more mature or advanced stage in the development of a science…when the majority of the scientists agrees on theoretical and methodological issues….a common paradigm or model defines the entire field”
D. Fragmentation characterizes psychology: it is preparadigmatic
E. Schools of thought as protests against the current order that correct the predecessor’s errors and then incur their own protest
VIII. Plan of the Book
A. Philosophical antecedents of experimental psychology
B. Physiological antecedents of experimental psychology
C. Wundt’s psychology
D. Structuralism
E. Functionalism
F. Behaviorism
G. Gestalt psychology
H. Psychoanalysis
I. Humanistic psychology
J. Cognitive psychology
K. Contemporary developments
1. evolutionary psychology
2. cognitive neuroscience
3. positive psychology

Lecture prompts/Discussion topics for chapter one

” Use a salient recent event and ask your class how that event might currently shape the field of psychology (what gets funded, what gets studied). For examples, the terror attacks of 9/11 may have spurred interest and research in the psychology of terrorism, post-traumatic stress syndrome, psychology of fear, etc. The subsequent invasion of Iraq may have spiked interest in effective repatriation of soldiers, psychological warfare, effective recruiting techniques, etc.
” Have the class suppose that one of them in the room will become a future eminent psychologist. What types of information might future historians of psychology use to piece together their current lives? How might this information differ from the information used to study an eminent psychologist who lived 100 years ago?

Internet Resources for chapter one

Today in the History of Psychology
http://www.cwu.edu/~warren/today.html
This site provides a listing of a number of historical events in psychology for any day of the year you submit. You can find out what has happened in psychology on your birthday in the past.

Women in Psychology History
http://psychology.okstate.edu/museum/women/cover2.html
This site provides a listing of a number of women in psychology history, along with photographs and a listing of their accomplishments.

Association for Women in Psychology
http://www.awpsych.org/
This is a site that provides networking for women in psychology, as well as a list of resources for women psychologists and an email discussion list.

Association for Black Psychologists
http://www.abpsi.org/
This is a site that provides networking for Black Psychologists, and is an organization whose goal is to have a positive impact on the mental health of Black Americans.

Thomas Kuhn
http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/Kuhnsnap.html
This site provides a summary of Kuhn’s life and works, and has a nice collection of links including some that summarize The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

Potential answers to chapter one discussion questions

1) What can we learn from studying the history of psychology?
The history of psychology has become a discipline in its own right; psychology departments offered history of psychology courses as early as 1911, there are journals dedicated to publishing history of psychology papers, APA has division 26 (History of Psychology), and 93% of 311 surveyed psychology departments offer a course in History of Psychology. Understanding the history of and therefore the evolution of thought preceding contemporary psychology will help one to understand contemporary psychology. Furthermore, contemporary psychologists differ widely in the topic areas they study, but all psychologists share the history. A study of the history of psychology will bring cohesion to the diverse discipline as a whole.

2) Why can psychologists claim that psychology is one of the oldest scholarly disciplines as well as one of the newest? Explain why modern psychology is a product of both nineteenth-century and twentieth-century thought?
Psychology can trace its roots to the fifth century BC, to the Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates, because we grapple with the same questions they attempted to answer. On the other hand, we could view psychology as emerging when philosophy and physiology merged to include experimentation and empirical methods to answer those questions about 200 years ago. Modern psychology can be considered a product of nineteenth-century thought because this is the time when the field developed its own independent methods and became its own independent discipline. One can also see the influence of the historical context on the formation of the field. The Zeitgeist of the time can have a tremendous influence on what the focus of psychology is at any given time. For example, during the world wars, psychological testing, personnel selection, and engineering were emphasized.

3) In what ways do the data of history differ from the data of science? Give examples of how historical data can be distorted.
History is different from science because historians must find, interpret, and assimilate scraps of information from a variety of sources to try to understand a complete picture. Such data cannot be reconstructed in a laboratory like a scientific experiment can. John Watson burned his letters, manuscripts, and notes before he died. Some papers written by Hermann Ebbinghaus had been lost but were recently found. Another problem relates to the distortion of data through translations. Some of the terms Sigmund Freud used to label phenomena within psychoanalysis lost the original meaning intended by Freud when the terms were mistranslated into English.
Some data of history are best described as being distorted to promote a particular impression of a person. In his autobiography, B.F. Skinner portrayed himself as doing nothing but work while he was a graduate student, although his classmates remember his Ping-Pong playing.

4) In what ways have contextual forces influenced the development of modern psychology?
Psychology has been shaped by historical events. Economic conditions toward the late nineteenth century lead to more psychologists being trained than there were academic positions to employ them. At the same time, the increase in immigrants caused an increase in the number of students needing public education. Psychologists sought to apply their skills to educational settings. Thus, applied psychology mushroomed in America. Wartime has also shaped the field. World war II lead to the migration of researchers and theorists from Europe to the United States and thus the forefront of psychology moved as well.
Prejudice and discrimination also shaped the field, as women, African Americans, Jews, and other groups were systematically denied education and employment in psychology.

5) Describe the obstacles faced by women, Jews, and African Americans in pursuing careers in psychology, especially during the first half of the twentieth century.
Women were often denied admission to graduate school or conferment of degrees, and later had a difficult time finding jobs particularly if she was married. Eleanor Gibson, who later won a number of professional awards for her work in perceptual development and learning, was restricted from certain courses and areas on campus when she attended Yale. Such discrimination extended into 1960, when Sandra Scarr was told by the officer interviewing her for admission that most women don’t finish their degrees, and the ones that do amount to nothing anyway. Despite such obstacles, women did attain doctoral degrees in psychology. One champion for the education of women was James McKeen Cattell, who supported women frequently, urging scientific societies to include women as members. Largely because of his efforts, the APA was the first scientific society to admit women as members. Mary Whiton Calkins became the first female president of APA in 1905.
Discrimination extended to Jewish psychologists as well. A study of discrimination of Jews at three universities-Harvard, Yale, and Princeton-found widespread practices that excluded Jews from admission. Those Jews who were admitted to colleges were often separated and socially ostracized. Many colleges and universities, including two important to psychology (Johns Hopkins and Clark), had explicit policies to disallow Jewish students. In the face of such discrimination, some Jewish psychologists changed their names, which helped them secure jobs. Isadore Krechevsky became David Krech, David Bakanovsky became David Bakan, and Harry Israel (even though he was a protestant) changed his name to Harry Harlow.
Some chose not to do this, for example Abraham Maslow refused to change his first name to something “less Jewish”.
African Americans also faced an enormous amount of discrimination. When Black students were allowed to attend predominantly White universities, they were often not allowed to live on campus or mix socially with White students. Howard University in Washington D.C., a traditionally Black school, provided an education in Psychology for many Black students.

6) How does the process of writing history in any field necessarily restrict the number of people whose work can be singled out for attention?
What gets highlighted in histories are a few individuals or events that have had an impact. By definition, this is a very small percentage of total individuals in a particular field. For example, many contemporary psychologists might be therapists, or might work for corporations. Unless they take the unusual step of publishing their work and ideas, their work will remain invisible to later psychology historians and won’t move beyond a small group of colleagues.

7) Describe the differences between personalistic and naturalistic conceptions of scientific history. Explain which approach is supported by cases of simultaneous discovery.
The personalistic conception of scientific history states that science advances because of eminent individuals whose work creates an impact on the field. The naturalistic conception of scientific history is the viewpoint that the intellectual climate (the Zietgeist) fosters the creation of a particular idea. If one person does not discover the idea, another person is likely to. There are many instances of simultaneous and independent discoveries which lends support to this naturalistic conception. For example, Wallace developed the shell of evolutionary theory independent of Darwin and halfway around the world from him.

8) What is the Zeitgeist? How does the Zeitgeist affect the evolution of a science? Compare the growth of a science with the evolution of a living species.
The Zeitgeist is the intellectual spirit of the times, and may be directed by some individuals. Oftentimes journal editors can act as gatekeepers of mainstream ideas and refuse to publish papers that are revolutionary. Psychologist John Garcia tried to publish a paper that challenged prevailing thought on stimulus-response theory. Although the research was solid, he was only able to publish in journals that were less known. The Zeitgeist can inhibit or promote methods of investigation or a discipline’s subject matter. Just like species adjust to the demands of the environment, a science will change depending on the Zeitgeist.

9) What is meant by the term “school of thought”? Has the science of psychology reached the paradigmatic stage of development? Why or why not?
A school of thought is when a group of psychologists agree on a subject of study, on methods to use, and approaches to psychology. Thomas Kuhn wrote a book about how sciences develop over time called The Structure of Scientific Revolution. According to Kuhn, when a science has produced an accepted way of thinking and has matured, this way of thinking is called a paradigm. Paradigms are present in other science, for example for about 300 years the paradigm in physics was the Galilean-Newtonian framework. Paradigms can also change, in what Kuhn calls a scientific revolution, such as when Einstein’s model of physics became the paradigm. Because psychology remains divided, it is considered to be “preparadigmatic”-there is no prevailing school of thought. In fact, many contemporary psychologists criticize the field because of its fragmentation. There is no single view of psychology upon which a majority of psychologists agree.

10) Describe the cyclical process by which schools of thought begin, prosper, and then fail.
In the history of psychology, the early schools of thought rose in opposition to the prevailing schools. Emerging schools would criticize the weaknesses of the previous schools and would address these weaknesses and attempt to redefine psychology, its methods, and its topics of study. If enough people agreed with the new school, the old school was rejected. Some early schools of thought (structuralism, functionalism) no longer exist while other schools (behaviorism, psychoanalysis) still do.

Key terms from chapter one

” Behaviorism This school of thought is most associated with Watson and Skinner, which grew in opposition to those interested in conscious experience. Behaviorists were interested in studying only visible and therefore objective behavior. Studies were carefully controlled and experimental as opposed to observational.
” Cognitive psychology This is the most recent school to form; its members also study conscious processes, particularly how the mind organizes thoughts.
” Data Distorted in translations Translations can lead to a change in meaning of a concept. For example, Freud’s Einfall was translated into English as Free Association, which does not convey the idea of intrusion/invasion Freud intended.

” Functionalism The school of psychology that grew in opposition to structuralism, and like structuralism focused on conscious experiences as it relates to evolutionary adaptation. To functionalists, conscious experience should be studied as it happens, and the goal is to determine the utility of consciousness.
” Gestalt psychology This school of thought began in Germany then came to the United States. With Gestalt, there is a focus on learning and perception in the context of the real world, and a focus on the wholeness of experience.
” Historiography The methods and techniques used to study history, shaped by the fact that the data of history (fragments of what has been left behind and found) are quite different than the data of science (which allows replication).
” Humanistic psychology This school of thought grew in opposition to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis, and emphasized the wholeness of human nature and communicated the ability to overcome the past.
” Lost/Suppressed data Some historical data has become lost over time (John Watson burning his papers), and some is purposefully suppressed (Freud’s biography downplaying his cocaine use).
” Naturalistic theory This is the idea that science progresses not because of the work of extraordinary individuals, but rather because the time is ripe for the progression. The Zeitgeist, or intellectual climate, can be both accepting of new discoveries or can dampen a new discovery if it is too revolutionary.
” Paradigm A paradigm is an accepted way of thinking in a particular discipline. In physics, for example, Einstein’s theories are broadly accepted. This is in contrast to psychology, where there is no broadly accepted psychological ideology.
” Personalistic theory This is the idea that the skills and discoveries of specific individuals is what creates new information
” Psychoanalysis Most associated with Freud, the focus of psychoanalysis is on the unconscious mind, with application to therapy.
” School of thought When a group of psychologists agree on a subject of study, on methods to use, and approaches to psychology we can call this group a school of thought.
” Self-serving data The idea that historical participants are motivated to shape how they are presented. For example, in his autobiography Skinner wrote that he did nothing but work in graduate school. At the same time, his graduate student colleagues remember his ping-pong skills.
” Structuralism The school of psychology most associated with Titchener, whereby conscious experience is dissected using introspection.
” Wilhelm Wundt Broadly known as the father of psychology, he defined what early psychology should be.
” Zeitgeist The prevailing spirit of the times which influences the flow of new thought. Sometimes the Zeitgeist is ‘right’ for an idea and more than one individual has the idea at once, such as Darwin and Wallace developing the theory of evolution independently. At other times the Zeitgeist is ‘wrong’ for an idea, such as when the Scottish scientist Robert Whytt suggested the idea of the conditioned response in 1763.

TESTBANK

ESSAY

1. Why is it important for psychology students to study the development of psychology?

ANS:
Answer not provided.

PTS: 1

2. Argue that Psychology’s roots began 2000 years ago. Now argue that they began 200 years ago. What fields came together to form Psychology?

ANS:
Answer not provided.

PTS: 1 MSC: WWW

3. Define historiography. How do the data of history differ from the data of science? Name and describe the three major difficulties involved in recalling and presenting the data of history.

ANS:
Answer not provided.

PTS: 1

4. Discuss and give one example of each of the contextual forces that influenced the development of psychology.

ANS:
Answer not provided.

PTS: 1

5. Describe, compare, and contrast the personalistic and naturalistic theories as conceptions of scientific history. How could the contributions of Darwin be used to illustrate both?

ANS:
Answer not provided.

PTS: 1 MSC: WWW

6. Define “school of thought” and discuss it in terms of Thomas Kuhn’s concept of paradigms in scientific evolution.

ANS:
Answer not provided.

PTS: 1

MULTIPLE CHOICE

7. Psychology is unique among the sciences in its requirement that its students ____.
a. have a minor in the natural sciences
b. learn the experimental method
c. use carefully controlled observations in its procedures
d. study the history of psychology
e. have a liberal arts background in the humanities

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?

8. What conclusions can be drawn from the study of the Invisible Gorilla?
a. All psychology students can multitask when presented with multiple stimuli at one time
b. Extraordinary events can induce extreme stress when presented to unsuspecting people
c. It is difficult for people to pay attention to more than one stimulus at a time
d. Doing homework and watching television at the same time are as efficient as if the two are done separately
e. Counting can be a difficult task when one is being watched

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Invisible Gorilla
MSC: WWW

9. Division ____ of the American Psychological Association is concerned with the study of the discipline’s history.
a. 1
b. 2
c. 26
d. 32
e. 42

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?

10. In what year was the American Psychological Association founded?
a. 1892
b. 1932
c. 1952
d. 1969
e. 1979

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?

11. Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its ____.
a. reliance on the experimental method in all its research
b. focus on the study of overt behavior
c. use of the hypothetico-deductive method
d. national organizations (APA and APS)
e. history

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?
MSC: WWW

12. Perhaps the most valuable outcome of the study of the history of psychology is that one will learn the ____.
a. relationships among psychology’s ideas, theories, and research strategies
b. contributions of the classic Greek philosophers
c. origins of the experimental methods
d. evolution of the scientist-practitioner model of clinical psychology
e. issues at the root of the pure versus applied research conflict in psychology

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?

13. According to Schultz & Schultz, a course in the history of psychology is useful because ____.
a. it helps us to understand why modern psychology has so many different movements
b. it helps to integrate the areas and issues that constitute modern psychology
c. it provides a fascinating story on its own
d. All of the choices are correct
e. None of the choices are correct

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?

14. As a scientific discipline, psychology is ____.
a. one of the newest
b. one of the oldest
c. the only one to have started in the United States
d. one of the newest and one of the oldest
e. None of the choices are correct

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

15. Greek philosophers studied issues involving ____.
a. motivation
b. abnormal behavior
c. learning
d. thought
e. All of the choices are correct

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

16. Modern psychology shares which of the following characteristics with ancient Greek philosophy?
a. An interest in the same kinds of questions about human nature
b. The development of common methods of research to answer questions about human nature
c. A reliance upon biology to help in the understanding of human nature
d. The denial that humans are composed of a physical body and a spiritual soul
e. None of the choices are correct

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

17. Modern psychology emerged from philosophy approximately ____ years ago.
a. 100
b. 150
c. 200
d. 250
e. 300

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

18. The feature of modern psychology that distinguishes it from its antecedents is its ____.
a. methodology
b. focus on learning
c. focus on motivation
d. focus on abnormal behavior
e. use of deductive logic

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

19. Until the last quarter of the 19th century, philosophers studied human nature using which of the following methods?
a. speculation
b. intuition
c. generalizations
d. All of the choices are correct.
e. None of the choices are correct.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

20. The new discipline of psychology was the product of the union of ____.
a. philosophy and ethics
b. philosophy and physics
c. physics and biology
d. physics and physiology
e. philosophy and physiology

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

21. The hallmark of psychology’s separation from philosophy was its reliance on ____.
a. physics
b. biology
c. experimentation
d. deduction
e. psychophysics

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology
MSC: WWW

22. Modern psychology differs from philosophy in which of the following ways?
a. Modern psychology is concerned with the study of mental processes such as learning, memory, and perception. Philosophy is concerned with the study of human nature.
b. Modern psychology uses objective methods to study questions. Philosophy depends upon speculation and intuition in order to answer questions.
c. Modern psychology studies only the brain. Philosophy studies only the mind.
d. Modern psychology is based upon the use of inductive reasoning. Philosophy is based upon the use of deductive reasoning.
e. None of the choices are correct.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

23. Psychology became an independent discipline during the ____.
a. Renaissance
b. last quarter of the eighteenth century
c. last quarter of the nineteenth century
d. first decade of the nineteenth century
e. first decade of the twentieth century

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

24. The term historiography refers to ____.
a. historical biography
b. methods used in psychological autopsy
c. the techniques, principles, and issues involved in historical research
d. the scientific study of history
e. the study of the history of psychology

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

25. In contrast to the events that are studied in science, historical events cannot be ____.
a. used to predict future outcomes
b. repeated
c. discovered
d. analyzed and explained
e. understood

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

26. The data of history are most accurately depicted or described as ____.
a. public records
b. private records
c. eyewitness testimony
d. recollections
e. data fragments

ANS: E PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

27. The approach of the historian of psychology is similar to the approach taken by ____ in the study of their field.
a. physicists
b. archaeologists
c. chemists
d. economists
e. None of the choices are correct.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

28. Which psychologist burned his/her own letters, manuscripts, and research notes before s/he died?
a. B. F. Skinner
b. John Watson
c. Karen Horney
d. Sigmund Freud
e. Margaret Washburn

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

29. At least one of Freud’s biographers downplayed the extent of Freud’s cocaine use. This is an example of ____.
a. suppressed data
b. data distorted by translation
c. lost data
d. errors of eyewitnesses
e. a misrepresentation intended to protect Freud’s reputation

ANS: E PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

30. An “autobiography” of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who ____.
a. slandered him personally
b. altered and/or deleted some of Jung’s writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers
c. exaggerated the degree of the break between Freud and Jung
d. expanded Jung’s theories and attributed the expansion to Jung
e. None of the choices are correct.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past MSC: WWW

31. Important personal papers by ____ have been misplaced for decades or more.
a. Ebbinghaus
b. Fechner
c. Darwin
d. All of the choices are correct.
e. None of the choices are correct.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

32. The historical treatment of Freud’s impact upon psychology is still incomplete because ____.
a. he changed his ideas so many times
b. many of his most important works have not been translated into English
c. many of his papers and letters will not be publicly available until later in the 21st century
d. All of the choices are correct.
e. None of the choices are correct.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

33. The terms ego and id, which do not precisely represent Freud’s ideas, are examples of ____.
a. suppressed data
b. data distorted by translation
c. eyewitness errors
d. lost data
e. distortions intended to protect Freud’s reputation

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

34. Freud’s idea “Einfall” was translated to English into the term ____ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German.
a. rationalization
b. free association
c. penis envy
d. dream analysis
e. fixation

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past MSC: WWW

35. Skinner’s self-discipline as a student and Freud’s being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that ____.
a. biographers disregard the real events in favor of fantasy
b. data of history are true in their original versions
c. participants may themselves produce biased accounts
d. translations errors account for most misinterpretations
e. All of the choices are correct

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

36. To guard against self-serving data and to assess the truth of a person’s recollections and reports of events in the history of psychology, the historian should, whenever possible, ____.
a. collect data from other observers
b. learn the language in which the person wrote
c. read newspaper accounts of the events
d. read others’ research publications of that era
e. reconstruct the event

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

37. Regardless of how objective a science and its practitioners are alleged to be, that science will be influenced by the ____.
a. scientists’ political beliefs
b. scientists’ religious beliefs
c. policies of the government that funds that science’s research
d. contextual forces of the time
e. amount of funding it receives

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

38. The term “Zeitgeist” refers to ____.
a. the intellectual and cultural climate of the times
b. a German dessert
c. the moment of discovery
d. the moment of change in scientific revolutions
e. a blizzard of activity

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

39. The contextual forces in psychology deal with the ____.
a. paradigms that exist in modern psychology.
b. social, economic, and political factors that influenced the field.
c. great individuals who have developed psychology.
d. attempt of psychology to separate itself from other disciplines such as physiology.
e. None of the choices are correct.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

40. The three contextual forces in the history of psychology were ____.
a. economic opportunities, wars, and discrimination
b. famine, pestilence, and death
c. theory, research, and application
d. cognition, motivation, and effect
e. social, political, and economic

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

41. A surge in the practice of applied psychology occurred in response to the lack of jobs in academic settings for PhDs. Thus, the development of applied psychology was a direct consequence of the ____.
a. great number of psychologists Wundt trained
b. political context of Europe
c. economic context of the United States
d. fact that the first generation of American psychologists learned all their courses in German and thus could not practice Wundt’s psychology
e. political context of the United States

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

42. A wave of employment possibilities in applied psychology in the first two decades of the 20th century was partly due to ____.
a. 700% increases in public school enrollment
b. more money being spent on defense than on education
c. the rise of the Veteran’s administration Hospital system
d. less money being spent on education than on defense and welfare combined
e. All of the choices are correct

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

43. Which contextual influence on psychology lead to the growth of psychology in the areas of personnel selection, psychological testing, and engineering psychology?
a. Demands generated by the world wars
b. Emigration from Germany of the top psychologists when Hitler took power
c. Prosperity of the 1920s and 1930s in the United States
d. Psychological needs of combat pilots
e. Need to provide education for an unexpected surge in the U.S. population

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

44. On the basis of the destruction associated with World War I, Freud proposed that ____.
a. humans have the ability to survive any catastrophe
b. the defense mechanisms are used by humans to distort reality
c. humans have an instinct for aggression
d. the id is stronger than the ego in controlling behavior
e. None of the choices are correct

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

45. According to the textbook, psychology as a discipline has ____.
a. engaged in the discriminatory practices that mark American culture as a whole
b. been substantially more discriminatory against women than have other sciences
c. been substantially more discriminatory against minorities than have other sciences
d. focused on the reduction of discrimination since its beginnings
e. None of the choices are correct

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

46. Even when some women were admitted to graduate programs in psychology, they still encountered many barriers to their success, such as ____.
a. being barred from some laboratory facilities
b. being prevented from using graduate library facilities
c. being unable to eat in graduate cafeterias
d. not being allowed to participate in some seminar topics
e. All of the choices are correct

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology
MSC: WWW

47. As recently as the 1960s, why were some universities reluctant to admit women to their graduate programs in psychology?
a. Their graduate admission scores were not as high as those of male applicants.
b. Their personal lives, in terms of marriage and becoming pregnant, were viewed as obstacles that reduced the likelihood of completion of graduate school.
c. In the opinion of some influential psychologists, some women would never amount to anything.
d. There were too many female applicants.
e. Their personal lives, in terms of marriage and becoming pregnant, were viewed as obstacles that reduced the likelihood of completion of graduate school and, in the opinion of some influential psychologists, some women would never amount to anything.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

48. Julian Rotter, a leading personality theorist was told that “____ simply could not get academic jobs, regardless of their credentials.”
a. African-Americans
b. women
c. graduates above the age of 50
d. Jews
e. All of the choices are correct.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

49. According to your text, it was so difficult for Jewish psychologists to get a job that some resorted to ____.
a. only applying to traditionally Jewish colleges and universities
b. changing their religion
c. lying about their religion
d. changing their name to something that didn’t seem Jewish
e. None of the choices are true

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

50. When ____ enrolled as a graduate student at Clark University, the administration arranged a separate dining table for her/him.
a. Francis Sumner
b. Margaret Floy Washburn
c. Kenneth Clark
d. Mamie Clark
e. Maslow

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

51. Kenneth Clark was rejected by the graduate program in psychology at Cornell because the university ____.
a. could not tolerate Blacks working closely with Whites
b. had no dormitory facilities for Blacks
c. had no dining facilities for Blacks
d. could not have Black males working with White female graduate students
e. would not confer the PhD on a Black person even if he or she completed the requisite coursework

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology
52. The first African American president of the APA was ____.
a. Frances Cecil Sumner
b. Charles Henry Turner
c. Kenneth Clark
d. Mamie Phipps Clark
e. None of the choices are correct

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology
MSC: WWW

53. Who conducted a research program on racial identity and self-concept issues for Black children that was cited in the 1954 Supreme Court decision to end racial segregation in public schools?
a. Francis Sumner
b. James Bayton
c. Inez Prosser
d. Kenneth and Mamie Clark
e. none of the choices are correct

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

54. History ignores the work of the majority of ____.
a. women
b. African-Americans
c. Jews
d. white men
e. all psychologists

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

55. The _____ theory would support the claim: “Freud was instrumental in discovering psychoanalysis. If not for Freud, no other psychologist would have been able to undercover the human psyche.”
a. Zeitgeist
b. personalistic
c. naturalistic
d. ortgeist
e. evolution

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History
MSC: WWW

56. “The man makes the times,” reflects which view of history?
a. panpsychic
b. personalistic
c. naturalistic
d. nativist
e. regressive

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History

57. Which theory suggests that “the times make the person”?
a. naturalistic
b. personalistic
c. nativist
d. particularistic
e. panpsychic

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History

58. Simultaneous discovery favors which view of history?
a. dynamic
b. personalistic
c. naturalistic
d. recurrent
e. syncopated

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History

59. Darwin and Wallace developed similar theories of evolution independently; Newton and Leibnitz developed the calculus independently; Twitmyer discovered “Pavlovian” conditioning before Pavlov did. Such independent discoveries are attributed to which theory?
a. syncopated
b. personalistic
c. naturalistic
d. Ortgeist
e. evolution

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History

60. In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because ____.
a. his work challenged the cognitive psychology school of thought
b. his work was regarded as poorly done
c. his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory
d. journal editors tend to accept findings that contradict or oppose current thinking
e. All of the choices are correct

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History
MSC: WWW

61. The editors and editorial boards of journals in psychology are composed of people eminent in their specialty areas and likely to subscribe to tradition and their own viewpoints. Thus, new knowledge may not be published if it is revolutionary. This situation illustrates which theory?
a. Zeitgeist
b. personalistic
c. naturalistic
d. Ortgeist
e. evolution

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History

62. In the first years of psychology’s emergence as a new discipline, which man determined its direction?
a. James McKeen Cattell
b. Edward Bradford Titchener
c. The Unknown Soldier
d. Wilhelm Wundt
e. Thomas Kuhn

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology

63. A school of thought emerges whenever ____.
a. a group shares a theoretical orientation and investigates similar problems
b. some person organizes and markets several compatible themes or practices, as did Wundt and Watson
c. a group at a particular college or university focuses on a particular problem, such as the “Wrzburg school”
d. a college or university adopts a particular orientation, such as behaviorism at Harvard or the “Chicago school” of functionalism
e. a college or university adopts a single methodology, such as the experimental psychology program at the University of Illinois

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology

64. The stage in the development of a science when it is still divided into schools of thought is called ____.
a. paradigmatic
b. preparadigmatic
c. revolutionary
d. a scientific revolution
e. messy

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology

65. Which eminent historian called the process of replacing one paradigm with another a scientific revolution?
a. E.G. Boring
b. Gordon Allport
c. Duane Schultz
d. Thomas Kuhn
e. John Garcia

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology

66. Kuhn (1970) defines a paradigm as ____.
a. an instance of agreement on theory and methodology by the science’s practitioners.
b. a model that describes a scientific phenomenon.
c. a model that explains a scientific phenomenon.
d. the reconciliation of disparate views on the proper subject matter of the field.
e. the ultimate goal of any science but which is an ideal and will never be realized.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology

67. In Kuhn’s philosophy of science, when Einstein’s theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ____ occurred.
a. Zeitgeist
b. Ortgeist
c. paradigm
d. scientific revolution
e. school of thought

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
MSC: WWW

68. Currently, psychology ____.
a. has reached the paradigmatic stage
b. has been described as a sequence of failed paradigms
c. may be more fragmented than at any time in its history
d. has been described as a sequence of failed paradigms and may be more fragmented than at any time in its history
e. None of the choices are correct

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology

69. The various schools of thought in psychology have served well as systems to be opposed. In each case, ____ was the consequence.
a. a new paradigm
b. a new school of thought
c. absorption into the mainstream
d. a new and unique methodology
e. a new definition of “mind”

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology

70. The school of thought that deals with conscious experience as it is dependent on the experiencing person is the ____ school.
a. structuralist
b. functionalist
c. Gestalt
d. humanistic
e. cognitive

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Plan of the Book

71. The school of thought that deals with how the conscious mind enables and facilitates one’s adaptation to one’s environment is the ____ school.
a. structuralist
b. functionalist
c. Gestalt
d. humanistic
e. cognitive

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Plan of the Book

72. The school of thought that focuses on the processes of knowing and thus represents a return to the study of conscious processes is the ____ school.
a. structuralist
b. functionalist
c. Gestalt
d. cognitive
e. humanistic

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Plan of the Book

73. The school of thought that is distinct in its focus on the role of the unconscious in determining behavior is the ____ school.
a. functionalist
b. psychoanalytic
c. behaviorist
d. Gestalt
e. cognitive

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Plan of the Book

74. The school of thought that focuses on learning and perception and emphasizes the combination of elements to produce new patterns is the ____ school.
a. structuralist
b. behaviorist
c. Gestalt
d. cognitive
e. Wrzburg

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Plan of the Book

75. The school of thought that deals solely with observable behaviors that can be described in objective terms is the ____ school.
a. structuralist
b. behaviorist
c. Gestalt
d. cognitive
e. humanistic

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Plan of the Book

76. The school of thought that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature is the ____ school.
a. structuralist
b. behaviorist
c. Gestalt
d. cognitive
e. humanistic

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: Plan of the Book

TRUE/FALSE

77. A course in the history of psychology is a typical requirement for only 10% of undergraduate degree programs in psychology.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?

78. Virtually every modern science includes a course on its history as a part of its curriculum.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?

79. The authors of your textbook argue that the formal study of the history of psychology is the most systematic way to integrate the areas and issues that constitute modern psychology.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Why Study the History of Psychology?
MSC: WWW

80. Psychology is one of the oldest and one of the newest scholarly disciplines.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

81. It can be argued that psychology today studies and debates some of the same questions as those that concerned the philosophers of ancient Greece.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology
MSC: WWW

82. The earliest possible starting point for psychology is approximately 1,000 years ago.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

83. The distinction between modern psychology and its roots has more to do with the kinds of questions asked than with the methods used.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: The Development of Modern Psychology

84. Reconstruction refers to the principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research.

ANS: F PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

85. The data of history are much like the data of science.

ANS: F PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

86. Although difficult to do, the data of history can be reconstructed or replicated.

ANS: F PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

87. The papers and diaries of Ebbinghaus and Fechner were found more than 70 years after their deaths.

ANS: T PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

88. The written record of Darwin’s life and work is now complete.

ANS: F PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

89. Jung wrote his autobiography.

ANS: F PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

90. The terms id, ego, and superego were improperly translated from German.

ANS: T PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past MSC: WWW

91. Freud’s original term for free association was Einfall, which means an intrusion or an invasion.

ANS: T PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

92. In his autobiography, Skinner recounts that his graduate days at Harvard were filled with endless work.

ANS: T PTS: 1
REF: The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past

93. Current evidence demonstrates that Freud’s works were ignored or even renounced by intellectuals during his lifetime.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

94. The term Zeitgeist refers to the spirit of the times.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

95. Three examples of contextual forces in psychology are economic opportunity, war, and prejudice.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

96. By 1960, the prejudice against women entering prestigious graduate schools of psychology had ended.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

97. The first African American to earn a doctoral degree in psychology was Kenneth Clark.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Contextual Forces in Psychology

98. Instances of simultaneous discoveries of theory support the naturalistic concept of scientific history.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History
MSC: WWW

99. The Zeitgeist is most influential in the naturalistic theory of history.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History

100. The effects of the Zeitgeist in inhibiting or delaying the dissemination and/or acceptance of a discovery operate at a cultural level but also within a science itself.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Conceptions of Scientific History

101. In Kuhn’s (1970) view, psychology is at the paradigm stage because it has several models from which one might choose.

ANS: F PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology

102. A new school of thought may overcome its opposition not because the opposing points of view become convinced to accept the new thinking, but because adherents of the old school of thought die off.

ANS: T PTS: 1
REF: Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
MSC: WWW

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “A History of Modern Psychology 10th Edition Solution”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *